Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Lambda, Javascript Micro-Services on AWS

Amazon just released a bunch of new services. My favorite is Lambda. Lambda allows me to deploy simple micro-services without having to setup any servers at all. Everything is hosted in the AWS cloud. Another cool thing about Lambda services is that the default runtime is Node.js!

To get access to AWS Lambda, you have to sign in to the [AWS Console] and select the Lambda service. You have to fill out a form to request access, which may take a while to come through. Once you have access you can edit the functions in a web form.

A lambda service is a Node module which exports an object with one function, the handler. In the AWS examples this is usually called handler and I'm going to follow their example.

Here is a simple function that can be edited and invoked in the online Lambda Edit/Test tool.

// hello-event.js
exports.handler = function(event, context) {
  console.log('Hello', event);
  context.done(null, 'Success');

The event is any JSON object and since a String is a valid object it can be invoked with "Tapir", which results in the following output in Lambda tool.

START RequestId: 3e21d80e-7e31-11e4-912c-2f870de05098
2014-12-07T16:51:47.163Z 3e21d80e-7e31-11e4-912c-2f870de05098 Hello Tapir
END RequestId: 3e21d80e-7e31-11e4-912c-2f870de05098
REPORT RequestId: 3e21d80e-7e31-11e4-912c-2f870de05098 Duration: 3.89 ms Billed Duration: 100 ms  Memory Size: 128 MB Max Memory Used: 9 MB

Working in the Lambda online tool is sufficient for simple examples examples but quickly gets annoying and once you need to add extra modules, you have to upload zip-archives and this is both error prone and tedious. Here is a simple script to zip relevant files and upload them to Lambda. Make sure to update the region and the role to your own specific properties.

# upload-lambda.sh
# Zip and upload lambda function

program=`basename $0`

set -o errexit

function usage() {
  echo "Usage: $program <function.js>"

if [ $# -lt 1 ]
  echo 'Missing required parameters'
  exit 1



zip_package() {
  zip -r $zip $file lib node_modules

upload_package() {
  aws lambda upload-function \
     --region $region \
     --role $role\
     --function-name $main  \
     --function-zip $zip \
     --mode event \
     --handler $main.handler \
     --runtime nodejs \
     --debug \
     --timeout 10 \
     --memory-size 128

# main

A Larger Example

Now that I know the Lambda works it is time to try out something more elaborate. I have read that it is not only possible to get access to npm modules but I also have access to the operating system when writing my service.

My bigger example consists of something I often have use for, a way to serve media files so that I don't have to check them into git. The way I want to do this is to upload a tarball to S3 and then have Lambda unpack the archive, checksum the files and upload them into another bucket.

Something like this:

  • React to the ObjectCreated:Put event
  • Download the tarball from S3
  • Extract tarball into temp directory
  • Checksum the files and rename them with the checksum
  • Upload the checksummed file to another S3 bucket
  • Upload an index of the files with mapping from old to new filename.

React to ObjectCreated:Put event

An AWS S3 ObjectCreated:Put event looks something like this in a trimmed down format

  "Records": [ {
      "eventVersion": "2.0",
      "eventSource": "aws:s3",
      "eventName": "ObjectCreated:Put",
      "s3": {
        "bucket": {
          "name": "anders-source",
        "object": {
          "key": "tapirs.tgz",
          "size": 1024,
          "eTag": "d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e"

To handle this event we need a handler function. All the handler needs to do is to extract the relevant properties from the file and then call assetify which will do the rest of the work. Breaking up the code like this allows me to use assetify locally and not only as a Lambda handler.

assetify.handler = function(event, context) {
    console.log('Received event:');
    console.log(JSON.stringify(event, null, '  '));

    var bucket = event.Records[0].s3.bucket.name;
    var key = event.Records[0].s3.object.key;
    assetify(bucket, key, function(err, result) {
        context.done(err, util.inspect(result));


In order to use assetify as a normal module on a local machine I export the function with module.exports. This code needs to come before the assetify.handler declaration above. When exported this way, it is possible to require the function without involving Lambda.

function assetify(sourceBucket, key, callback) {
    var tgzRegex = new RegExp('\\.tgz');
    if (!key.match(tgzRegex)) return callback('no match');
    var prefix = path.basename(key, '.tgz');

        downloadFile.bind(null, sourceBucket, key),
        uploadFiles.bind(null, prefix),
        uploadIndex.bind(null, prefix)
    ], function(err, result) {
        if (err) return callback(err);
        callback(null, result);

module.exports = assetify;

I'm using async.waterfall in combination with bind to get a nice flat structure of the code which clearly resembles the described flow above.

Download file

The downloadFile function uses a nice feature of s3.getObject, streaming. After creating a temporary file with tmp.file, I create a request and then I stream the contents from S3 directly into a write stream. Very nice! I also need to hook up some event handler to allow me to notify the callback once the streaming is complete.

function downloadFile(sourceBucket, key, callback) {
    console.log('downloadFile', sourceBucket, key)
    tmp.file({postfix: '.tgz'}, function tmpCreated(err, tmpfile) {
        if (err) return callback(err);
        var awsRequest = s3.getObject({Bucket: sourceBucket, Key:key});
        awsRequest.on('success', function() {
            return callback(null, tmpfile);
        awsRequest.on('error', function(response) {
            return callback(response.error);
        var stream = fs.createWriteStream(tmpfile);

Extract tarball

In order to extract the tarball I'm using the ordinary tar command instead of relying on a Node module. This works fine as Lambda seems to include a full standard AWS distribution. Very nice to have access to all the common Unix utilities. The glob function makes it easy to traverse the full tree structure of the archive and I use this to return (or pass on via callback) a map of filenames to the temporary files.

function extractTarBall(tarfile, callback) {
    tmp.dir(function(err, dir) {
        if (err) return callback(err);
        var cmd = 'tar -xzf ' + tarfile + ' -C ' + dir;
        exec(cmd, function (err) {
            if (err) return callback(err);
            glob(dir + '**/*.*', function(err, files) {
                if (err) return callback(err);
                var fs = files.map(function(file) {
                    return {
                        path: file,
                        originalFile: file.replace(dir, '')
                return callback(null, fs);


checksumFiles uses async.map to call the singular version checksumFile. This creates a checksum of the file and does some string manipulation in order to create a name with a checksum in it.

function checksumFiles(files, callback) {
    async.map(files, checksumFile, callback);

function checksumFile(file, callback) {
    checksum.file(file.path, { algorithm: 'md5'}, function(err, sum) {
        if (err) return callback(err);
        var filename = file.originalFile;
        var ext = path.extname(filename);
        var base = filename.replace(ext, '');
        var checksumFile = base + '-' + sum + ext;

        callback(null, {
            path: file.path,
            originalFile: file.originalFile,
            checksumFile: checksumFile

Upload files to S3

When the new filenames have been created the files can now be uploaded to S3 via s3.putObject. Unfortunately, putObject does not support pipe, but I can use a ReadStream as the value of the body object and this is good enough. It uses the mime module to calculate the content-type from the filename. After the file is uploaded an object with a mapping between the original name and the URL is returned.

function uploadFiles(prefix, files, callback) {
    console.log('uploadFiles', prefix, files)
    async.map(files, uploadFile.bind(null, prefix), callback);

function uploadFile(prefix, file, callback) {
    var stream = fs.createReadStream(file.path);
    var s3options = {
        Bucket: config.bucket,
        Key: prefix + file.checksumFile,
        Body: stream,
        ContentType: mime.lookup(file.path)
    s3.putObject(s3options, function(err, data) {
        if (err) return callback(err);
        console.log('Object added', s3options);
        callback(null, {
            originalFile: file.originalFile,
            url: config.url + config.bucket + '/' + prefix + file.checksumFile

Upload the index

The last thing to is to upload the index with the filename-to-URL map as a JSON-file. This is done in a similar way as the upload of the images.

function uploadIndex(prefix, files, callback) {
    var s3options = {
        Bucket: config.bucket,
        Key: prefix + '/index.json',
        Body: JSON.stringify(files),
        ContentType: 'application/json'

    s3.putObject(s3options, function(err, data) {
        if (err) return callback(err);
        console.log('Object added', s3options.Key);
        callback(null, {
            files: files,
            url: config.url + config.bucket + '/' + prefix + '/index.json'


The final index.json file loooks something like this.

  originalFile: "/Tapir_standing_profile.jpg",
  url: "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/anders-dest/tapirs/Tapir_standing_profile-624bd0ac55d5140a78a2ea9d1409e2f6.jpg"
  originalFile: "/tapir-sticker.png",
  url: "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/anders-dest/tapirs/tapir-sticker-8522f4228bbc995d73ee1ead9d5e8e4f.png"
  originalFile: "/tapir.jpg",
  url: "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/anders-dest/tapirs/tapir-eb09705a33f6c6896def4e452fa77272.jpg"


Lambda is very simple to work with and it allows me to create small services that react to events without the need to setup any servers at all.

Apart from the integration with S3, it also integrates with Kinesis and with DynamoDB allowing for very cool application to built.


Justin England said...

Great post! I love lambda.

Anders Janmyr said...

Justin, thanks, I'm glad you liked it.

Frank said...

Great post man, I love lambda as well ! I think that could be a game changing service !

I'm working on a bunch of aws lambda project that you might be interested in :


frank said...

Hit me up it you are interested, would be great to chat !

abhay said...

nice blog.
Myself wrote blog on AWS Lambda future.

Shalin Siriwaradhana said...

Found some aws examples in creately diagram community. There are 1000s of examples and templates available to be used freely.